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   Recent Publications:

Longitudinal crash pulse
Comeau J-L, Holmes W, Monk B, Dalmotas DJ, German A, Schramm S, Thannhauser S and Good C; The Application of Event Data Recorders to Vehicle Safety Research; Proceedings of the 27th CARSP Conference; Toronto, ON; June 18-21, 2017

Event Data Recorders (EDR's) have been installed in many motor vehicles since the 1990's. With the advent of sophisticated occupant restraint systems, including belt pretensioners and smart airbags, EDR's have recorded an increasing number of crash-related parameters. Similarly, advanced collision avoidance systems have become prevalent in the vehicle fleet and EDR's are now used to capture a wide range of pre-crash data elements relating to this technology and the resulting status of the vehicle and its control systems. Such data provide a wealth of information related to driver actions, and on the functionality and effectiveness of vehicle safety systems. The current paper will provide an overview of the scope of data elements captured by modern EDR's and will demonstrate the utility of these data through case studies of real-world events.

Download the full-text article as a PDF file (1.5 MB)

Prasad P, Dalmotas DJ and German A; The Incidence and Severity of Small Overlap Frontal Crashes in NASS-CDS; Paper No. 15-0182-O; Proc. 24th ESV Conf.; Gothenburg, Sweden; June 8-11, 2015

The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety has recently introduced a small overlap frontal crash test in its frontal rating scheme. Another small overlap frontal crash test is under development by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Whereas the IIHS test is conducted against a fixed rigid barrier, the NHTSA test is conducted with a moving deformable barrier that overlaps 35% of the vehicle being tested and the angle between the longitudinal axis of the barrier and the longitudinal axis of the test vehicle is 15 degrees. The field relevance of the IIHS test and the NHTSA test has been the subject of previous papers by Prasad et al. The current study is aimed at examining the combined relevance of the two tests as representing frontal corner impacts involving small overlap. The field relevance is indicated by the frequency of occurrence of real world crashes that are simulated by the test conditions, the proportion of serious-to-fatal real world injuries explained by the test conditions, and rates of serious injury to the head, chest and other body regions in the real world crashes resembling the test condition. The database examined for real world crashes is NASS-CDS. The frontal corner impacts as represented by the 25% Small overlap frontal and the NHTSA tests together address slightly less than 9% of all frontal crashes and 6% to 12% of all MAIS3+F injuries to the drivers in these crashes. The IIHS test has a somewhat higher contribution in both the incidence and severity. The two crash modes together address 4.6% to 8.2% of all MAIS3+F head injuries. Similarly, the proportion of all frontal MAIS3+F chest injuries addressed by the two crash modes or corner tests is estimated to be 6% to 10.6%. The available data for the passenger involved in driver-side frontal corner crashes indicate that elderly female occupants predominantly experience serious head and chest injuries. All, except one, injured passengers were females. The average age of injured females who had chest injuries was slightly over 65 years. Injury rates of the head and the chest are substantially lowered in far-side than in near-side frontal impacts. Crash test ATD rotational responses of the head in the tests substantially over predict the real world risk of serious-to-fatal brain injuries.

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Small overlap impact
Loss of control and vehicle rollover
German A, Dalmotas DJ, Prasad P and Comeau J-L; Ejections and Fatalities in Single-Vehicle Rollover Crashes: A Question of Restraint; Proc. 25th CARSP Conference; Ottawa, Ontario; May 27-30, 2015

In recent years, due to initiatives such as Road Safety Vision 2010, and the National Occupant Restraint Program, Canada has seen reductions in casualties resulting from motor vehicle collisions. Indeed, the most recent collision statistics, published in 2012, show the lowest death toll on the nation's roads in almost sixty years. Furthermore, the most recent seat belt surveys, conducted in 2009-10, indicate that Canadians are buckling up in motor vehicles more than ever, with an overall usage rate in excess of 95%. Despite these very encouraging signs, the percentage of motor vehicle occupants who are fatally injured while not using seat belts remains unacceptably high at more than 35%. This problem is particularly well exemplified by fatalities resulting from single-vehicle rollover crashes. Such collisions frequently occur as a result of loss of directional control on the part of the driver, and involve vehicle yaw and a lateral rollover, a crash mode that is often benign. Belted occupants are generally retained inside the vehicle and come to little harm. However, such may well not be the case for the unbelted who are in considerable danger of being ejected from the vehicle, with the consequent potential for serious or fatal injury. The present study looks at this latter issue, both from the perspective of the national collision picture, and from a series of in-depth investigations of fatal crashes.

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Prasad P, Dalmotas DJ and German A; The Field Relevance of NHTSA’s Oblique Research Moving Deformable Barrier Tests; Paper No. 2014-07; Stapp Car Crash Journal; Volume 58; pp. 175-196; November 2014

A small overlap frontal crash test has been recently introduced by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety in its frontal rating scheme. Another small overlap frontal crash test is under development by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Whereas the IIHS test is conducted against a fixed rigid barrier, the NHTSA test is conducted with a moving deformable barrier that overlaps 35% of the vehicle being tested and the angle between the longitudinal axis of the barrier and the longitudinal axis of the test vehicle is 15 degrees. The field relevance of the IIHS test has been the subject of a paper by Prasad et al. (2014). The current study is aimed at examining the field relevance of the NHTSA test. The field relevance is indicated by the frequency of occurrence of real world crashes that are simulated by the test conditions, the proportion of serious-to-fatal real world injuries explained by the test condition, and rates of serious injury to the head, chest and other body regions in the real world crashes resembling the test condition. The database examined for real world crashes is NASS. Results of the study indicate that 1.4% of all frontal 11-to-1 o'clock crashes are simulated by the test conditions that account for 2.4% to 4.5% of all frontal serious-to-fatal (MAIS3+F) injuries. Injury rates of the head and the chest are substantially lower in far-side than in near-side frontal impacts. Crash test ATD rotational responses of the head in the tests over-predict the real world risk of serious-to-fatal brain injuries.

Full-text paper available from SAE

NHTSA oblique crash test
Rear camera

Side camera

German A; Improving Rear Visibility with Video Technology; The Safety Network; pp. 12-13; Issue 4, 2014

Video camera technology is being used to provide blind spot detection for drivers when reversing or turning right. NHTSA has issued a final rule requiring rear visibility technology in all new light-duty vehicles by 2018.

Video cameras have been miniaturized, and their sensor systems refined in terms of their field of view and light-gathering ability. The cost of video cameras has been reduced considerably, and they are now being widely adapted for in-vehicle applications.

Rear-view cameras and in-dash display screens are being installed in many new vehicle models. These provide a broad view to the rear of the vehicle, with software often being used to overlay a grid on the image, indicating distances to objects to the rear of the vehicle.

Similar camera systems may be embedded in a vehicle's side mirrors. These systems provide additional coverage of blind spots and may be activated automatically, by use of the turn signals, or under the manual control of the driver.

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Dalmotas D, German A and Prasad P; Frontal Corner Impacts - Crash Tests and Real-World Experience; Presented at the 6th. International ESAR Conference; Hannover, Germany; June 20-21, 2014

In North America, frontal crash tests in both the regulatory environment and consumer-based safety rating schemes have historically been based on full-width and moderate-overlap (40%) vehicle to barrier impacts. The combination of improved seat-belt technologies, notably belt tensioning and load limiting systems, together with advanced airbags, has proven very effective in providing occupant protection in these crash modes. Recently, however, concern has been raised over the contribution of narrower frontal impacts, involving primarily the vehicle corners, to the incidence of fatality and serious injury as a result of the potential for increased occupant compartment intrusion and performance limitations of current restraint systems.

Drawing on data documented in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS)/ Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) for calendar years 1999 to 2012, the present study examines the characteristics of existing and proposed corner crash test configurations, and the nature of real-world collisions that approximate the test environments. In this analysis, particular emphasis is placed on crash pulse information extracted from vehicle-based event data recorders (EDR's).

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Small-overlap crash tests
MAIS 3+ injuries in SOI
Prasad P, Dalmotas D and German A; An Examination of Crash and NASS Data to Evaluate the Field Relevance of IIHS Small Offset Tests; SAE Int. J. Trans. Safety; Vol. 2 No. 2; 2014

This paper presents the analysis of a series of frontal crash tests conducted by the Insurance Institute of Highway Safety that are commonly referred to as Small Overlap Impacts (SOI). The occurrence and severity of such frontal impacts in the real world were estimated using two different methods. Both methods used the National Automotive Sampling Scheme (NASS), which is a stratified sample of crashes in the US.

The first method utilized an algorithm commonly known as Frontal Impact Taxonomy (FIT). The second method was based on comparison of deformation patterns of vehicles involved in frontal crashes in the NASS data files with those produced in tests conducted by the IIHS.

FIT analysis of the data indicate that approximately 7.5% of all 11-1 o'clock frontal crashes in NASS are represented by the IIHS SOI test condition and they account for 6.1% of all serious-to-fatal injuries to front seat occupants restrained by seat belts and airbags. Based on the analysis of test and crash front end damage data, it is estimated that the IIHS SOI test mode represents 3% to 8% of all fatal crashes and 4.6 to 9% of all MAIS3+F injury producing frontal crashes.

Full-text paper available from SAE

Lehouillier T, Holmes W and German A; The Use of Event Data Recorders in the Analysis of Unintended Acceleration Incidents; Proc. CMRSC-XXIII; Montreal, Quebec; May, 2013

Public complaints of unintended acceleration in motor vehicles are regularly received by Transport Canada's Defect Investigations and Recalls group. Some years ago, a major study of such cases was conducted using conventional investigative techniques, including physical inspections of subject vehicles and in-depth interviews with their operators. The results of this study demonstrated that the phenomenon was essentially due to operator error and not related to malfunction of any vehicle control system. In particular, the incidents resulted from so-called “pedal error” where drivers were pressing down hard on the accelerator pedal while believing themselves to be fully applying the vehicle's brakes. The advent of vehicles equipped with event data recorders (EDR's) capable of storing a range of pre-collision information, including the status of the brake-light switching circuit, and the disposition of both the accelerator pedal and vehicle throttle, has provided investigators with an objective dataset with which to evaluate unintended acceleration complaints. The present work uses recent public complaints of such incidents that have been received by Transport Canada, where the case vehicles were equipped with EDR's, and pre-crash data stored on these devices were downloaded following the alleged incidents. The analysis of these data clearly demonstrates the potential for EDR's to assist in determining the precise operator actions leading up to unintended acceleration incidents.

Download the full-text paper as a PDF file (1.2 MB)

Unintended acceleration cases
Truck Side Guard
European Heavy Truck Equipped with a Side Guard
(Image courtesy of Lloyd Alter)
German A; Side Guards on Heavy Trucks; The Safety Network; pp. 14-16; Issue 2, May 2013

Recently, media attention has been focussed on a recommendation from the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario that side guards should be installed on heavy trucks in order to protect pedestrians; however, other research suggests that this safety issue may be somewhat more complex.

"Transport Canada should make side-guards mandatory on heavy trucks in Canada. In addition, consideration should be given to requiring additional equipment (such as blind spot mirrors and blind spot warning signs) to make pedestrians more visible to trucks and decrease the chance of a collision, especially during right-hand turns."
The media, and others, seized on the first part of this recommendation and called for regulators to require the installation of side guards on all heavy trucks. Given that the coroner's report indicates that half of the heavy truck-pedestrian fatalities involved the pedestrian coming into contact with the side of the truck, and subsequently being either pinned or run over by the rear wheels, the recommendation may seem to have considerable merit. This position would also seem to be supported by the inclusion of a quote from a National Research Council (NRC) report that in the European Union, "…deaths and serious injuries… have been reduced since the introduction of side guards."

However, while the authors of the NRC report do indeed indicate a reduction in pedestrian fatalities following the mandating of truck side guards, they go on to state that: "…it is not clear if this reduction is entirely related to side guards or if side guards are but one of the contributing factors." Furthermore, their report includes the statement that: "It is not clear if side guards will reduce deaths and serious injury or if the guards will simply alter the mode of death and serious injury." There is, therefore, some question over the efficacy of side guards as an appropriate countermeasure.

Download the full-text article as a PDF file (224 KB)

German A; Pedestrian Safety through Vehicle-Based Countermeasures; The Safety Network; pp. 6-7; Issue 2, May 2013

Not surprisingly, pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists are especially vulnerable in collisions with much more massive, and much faster moving, motor vehicles. Even at relatively low contact speeds the outcome for such individuals can be serious injuries or even fatalities. In jurisdictions such as Europe, where the involvement of vulnerable road users in serious collisions is greater than in North America, specific consideration has been given to the protection of these individuals through vehicle-based countermeasures.

In the late 90's the European New Car Assessment Programme (EuroNCAP) began incorporating safety ratings for vehicles based on pedestrian-friendly designs. Structural changes to motor vehicles, necessitated by the desire of manufacturers to obtain good pedestrian protection scores in EuroNCAP tests, have included deformable bumpers, softer edges on the hood, and providing clearance between the top surface of the hood and the underlying structures of the engine assembly.

A more recent innovation, developed by Volvo Car Corporation, has been the deployment of an external air bag that both lifts the hood in order to create deflection space, and provides a shield over the bottom of the windshield frame and the lower portions of the front roof pillars to protect against head contact with these stiff structures.

Volvo, a company renowned for its vehicle safety innovations, has also developed a series of countermeasures designed to locate vulnerable road users ahead of the vehicle's path of travel, predict their likely movements, and identify hazardous situations where a collision might occur. In such cases, the driver is alerted, while the vehicle itself is capable of fully applying the brakes in order to prevent a crash or at least reduce the impact speed.

Download the full-text article as a PDF file (363 KB)

Pedestrian detection

Cyclist detection

Stopping on a dime
German A; Stopping on a dime - or perhaps on a loonie!; Presented at EOTIS, Ottawa, ON; November 21, 2012

Following up on the concepts used to determine that "work is mad", we explore the possibilities for vehicles to "stop on a dime" and discover that, sometimes, they actually need a loonie!

The paper provides an example of calculating a vehicle's total stopping distance as the distance travelled during the period of the driver's perception-reaction to a hazard and the distance travelled under subsequent hard braking. Similar calculations for different initial speeds show the potential dangers in increased speed.

We look at a vehicle that can just brake to a halt and avoid a crash and find that a vehicle travelling just 5 km/h faster will undergo a collision with an impact speed of 30 km/h!

Download the full-text paper as a PDF file (339 KB)

Comeau J-L, German A and Dalmotas D; Crash Pulse Data from Event Data Recorders in Rigid Barrier Tests; Paper Number 11-0395; 22nd International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles; Washington, DC; June, 2011

In recent years, major advances in field data collection and analysis have been achieved through the integration of real-world vehicle crash data captured by on-board, electronic, event data recorders (EDR's). For some time, data has been publicly available from EDR's in General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler vehicles. Recently, Toyota has provided a proprietary tool through which researchers can access EDR's installed in their vehicles. The current study looks at the crash data that are available and explores the accuracy of this information. The study uses a series of staged collisions with EDR-equipped vehicles and compares data downloaded from these devices to equivalent information captured by laboratory instrumentation. Full-frontal crash tests, conducted by Transport Canada, at 48 km/h into a rigid barrier are used. The results show generally good agreement between the two datasets, with some limitations in the EDR-reported data being noted. These comparisons of data obtained from on-board vehicle EDR's, with equivalent information collected using sophisticated laboratory instrumentation, provide a valuable measure of confidence in the use of similar data collected from real-world events.

Download the full-text paper as a PDF file (1.4 MB)

EDR's in Rigid Barrier Tests
EDR's in Toyota Vehicles Comeau J-L, Dalmotas DJ and German A; Event Data Recorders in Toyota Vehicles; Proc. CMRSC-XXI; Halifax, Nova Scotia; May 8-11, 2011

Increasingly, vehicle manufacturers are developing tools which allow access to data stored on on-board event data recorders (EDR's). The information stored by such devices have the potential for providing levels of insight into crashes well beyond that achievable with conventional collision reconstruction techniques. The current work identifies the nature of the stored data that can be retrieved from the on-board event data recorders in Toyota vehicles, and evaluates the accuracy of the crash pulse data based on information obtained from frontal crash tests. An overview of the pre-crash and crash-pulse data provided by Toyota EDR's is presented. The accuracy of the crash-pulse data is explored from a series of staged collisions with EDR-equipped vehicles. Data downloaded from the EDR's are compared to equivalent information captured by laboratory instrumentation. Full-frontal crash tests, over a range of test speeds, and conducted on a number of different model vehicles, are used in the study.

Download the full-text paper as a PDF file (1.2 MB)

Comeau J-L, Dalmotas DJ and German A; Evaluation of the Accuracy of Event Data Recorders in Chrysler Vehicles in Frontal Crash Tests; Proc. CMRSC-XXI; Halifax, Nova Scotia; May 8-11, 2011

In recent years, major advances in field data collection and analysis have been achieved through the integration of real-world vehicle crash data captured by on-board, electronic, event data recorders (EDR's). To date, publicly-available data have been limited to just two manufacturers, namely General Motors and Ford. Recently, Chrysler has provided a tool by which researchers can access EDR's installed in their vehicles. The current study looks at the new crash data that are now available from Chrysler vehicles and explores the accuracy of this information. The study uses data from a series of staged collisions with EDR-equipped vehicles and compares data downloaded from these devices to equivalent information captured by laboratory instrumentation. Full-frontal crash tests, over a range of test speeds, and conducted on a number of different model vehicles, are used in the study.

Download the full-text paper as a PDF file (927 KB)

EDR's in Chrysler Vehicles
Crash Pulse Analysis using EDR's
Dalmotas DJ, German A and Comeau J-L; Crash Pulse Analysis using Event Data Recorders; Proc. CMRSC-XIX, Saskatoon, SK, June 8-10, 2009

Many vehicles equipped with air bags also have on-board crash recording systems that, in the event of a frontal collision, capture information relating to the crash, and the deployment of safety systems such as seat belt pretensioners and air bags. Typically, event data recorders (EDR) store details of the collision itself, such as the crash pulse, seat belt pretensioner and air bag firing times, and also certain pre-crash data elements such as vehicle speed, throttle and brake application, and seat belt use status. For a number of years, collision investigators have been able to download the data stored in many General Motors and Ford vehicles through the use of a crash data retrieval tool. Such records provide an opportunity to gain a better understanding of the parameters related to real-world collisions as they afford access to objective crash data with known levels of uncertainty. The current work uses EDR information from in-depth investigations of real-world collisions in Canada. Frontal impacts are categorized by crash type and severity. The resulting subsets of crash pulses and restraint system activation times are compared to data captured as part of staged crash tests that have been undertaken for both regulatory purposes and research. This provides considerable insight into the utility of regulatory crash tests and the nature of the compliance strategies adopted by vehicle manufacturers.

Download the full-text paper as a PDF file (2.2 MB)

Older Publications:

McClafferty K and German A; High-Tech Motor Vehicle Safety Systems; Proc. CMRSC-XVIII; Whistler, BC; June 8-11, 2008

German A, Comeau J-l, McClafferty KJ, Shkrum MJ and Tiessen PF; Event Data Recorders in the Analysis of Frontal Impacts; Proc. 51st Conf. AAAM; Melbourne, Australia ; October 15-16, 2007

German A, Comeau J-l, Monk B, White J and McClafferty K; Momentum and Event Data Recorders; Proc. CMRSC-XVII; Montreal, Quebec; June 3-6, 2007

German A; Momentum 103 - The Algebraic Solution for Conservation of Momentum; EOTIS Newsletter; Vol. 5, No.1; pp. 7-20; March, 2007

German A; Momentum 102 - Vector Analysis and Momentum; EOTIS Newsletter; Vol. 4, No.2; pp. 12-24; December, 2006

German A; Momentum 101 - The Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum; EOTIS Newsletter; Vol. 4, No.2; pp. 3-11; December, 2006

German A, Comeau J-L, McClafferty KJ and Green RN; Event Data Recorders and Traffic Safety Research; Proc. 20th ITMA World Congress; 16-18 October, 2006; Melbourne, Australia (Published abstract)

German A; SAS Analysis of Directed Studies; Transport Canada; September, 2006

German A; SAS Analysis of Directed Studies for External Researchers - Air Cushion Restraint Study; Transport Canada; September, 2006

Tylko S, German A, Dalmotas D and Bussièrres A; Improving Side Impact Protection for the Average Man: The Development of a Harmonized Pole Test Procedure; International IRCOBI Conference; Madrid, Spain; September 20-22, 2006

McClafferty KJ, Tiessen PF, German A and Comeau J-L; A Preliminary Comparison of Real World Frontal Impacts and Staged Crash Tests; Presented at CMRSC-XVI; Winnipeg, Manitoba; June 11-14, 2006 (Published abstract)

Chan J, LeDrew P and German A; Fatal Collision Causation and Potential Counter-measures; Proc. CMRSC-XVI; Winnipeg, Manitoba; June 11-14, 2006

Boase P, Belluz L, Burns P, Comeau J-l, German A, Jonah B, Monk B, White J, Bowron D, Edens P, Kent G and McCallum A; Multidisciplinary Study of the Causes of Fatal Collisions; Proc. CMRSC-XVI; Winnipeg, Manitoba; June 11-14, 2006

Green RN, McClafferty KJ and German A; A Review of Jurisprudence Regarding Event Data Recorders; 2nd Annual National Civil Litigation Conference; Canadian Bar Association; Toronto, Ontario; April 28-29, 2006

McClafferty KJ, Tiessen PF and German A; The Use of Event Data Recorders in the Analysis of Real-World Crashes: Tales from the Silent Witness, in "Contemporary Issues in Traffic Research and Road User Safety"; Nova Science; 2005

German A; Page From a Physicist's Notebook: Work is mad - it takes energy!; Proc. CMRSC-XV; Fredericton, New Brunswick; June 5-8, 2005

McClafferty KJ, Tiessen PF and German A; Real World Comparisons of Calculated and EDR Recorded Delta-V; Proc. CMRSC-XIV; Ottawa, Ontario; June 27-30, 2004

Comeau J-L ; German A and Floyd D; Comparison of Crash Pulse Data from Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorders and Laboratory Instrumentation; Proc. CMRSC-XIV; Ottawa, Ontario; June 27-30, 2004

McClafferty K and German A; Event Data Recorders: The Right to Privacy vs. Society's Right to Know; The Safety Network; pp. 7-9; June, 2004

German A, Dalmotas D, Tylko S, Comeau J-L and Monk B; Air Bag Research in Canada: The Development of Knowledge-Based Countermeasures; Canadian Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference; Ottawa, Ontario; November 23-25, 2003 (Published abstract)

Howard A, Moses McKeag A, Rothman L, German A, Comeau J-L and Monk B; Ejections of Young Children in Motor Vehicle Crashes; J. Trauma; 55(1); pp. 126-129; July, 2003

Howard A, Moses McKeag A, Rothman L, Pazmino-Canizares J, German A, Monk B, Comeau J-L, Hale I, Mills D and Blazeski S; Children in Side Impact Motor Vehicle Crashes: Seating Position and Injury Mechanism; Proc. CMRSC-XIII; Banff, Alberta ; June 8-11, 2003

Howard A, Moses McKeag A, Rothman L, German A, Hale I, Emam A, Altenhof B and Turchi R; Cervical Spine Injuries in Children Restrained in Forward Facing Child Restraints; Proc. CMRSC-XIII; Banff, Alberta ; June 8-11, 2003

McClafferty K, Tiessen P, Shkrum M, Chan J, Deyell P, German A, White J, Glazduri V, Comeau J-L and Monk B; A Study of Pre-Crash Events Using Information Retrieved from Event Data Recorders; Proc. CMRSC-XIII; Banff, Alberta ; June 8-11, 2003

German A, Dalmotas D, Tylko S, Comeau J-L and Monk B; Air Bag Induced Fatalities in Canada; Proc. CMRSC-XIII; Banff, Alberta; June 8-11, 2003

Shkrum MJ, McClafferty KJ, Nowak ES and German A; Driver and Front Seat Passenger Fatalities Associated with Air Bag Deployment Part: II A Review of Injury Patterns and Investigative Issues; J. Forensic Sciences; Vol. 47, No 5; pp. 1035-1040; Paper ID JFS2001364_475; September 2002

Shkrum MJ, McClafferty KJ, Nowak ES and German A; Driver and Front Seat Passenger Fatalities Associated with Air Bag Deployment Part: I A Canadian Study; J. Forensic Sciences; Vol. 47, No 5; pp. 1028-1034; Paper ID JFS2001364_475; September 2002

German A and Chan J; Crash Data Retrieval Systems applied to Real-World Collision Reconstruction; Presented at ICRASH 2002 International Crashworthiness Conference; Melbourne, Australia; February 25-27, 2002

Lapner PC, McKay M, Howard AW, Gardner B, German A and Letts RM ; Children in crashes: Mechanisms of injury and restraint systems; Can. J. Surgery; Vol. 44 No. 6; December, 2001

McClafferty KJ, Tiessen P, Wetmore S, Bloch-Hanson D, and German A; Fatalities Involving Tilt-Bed Trucks: Underride and Poor Conspicuity; Proc. CMRSC-XII; London, Ontario; June 10-13, 2001

Linda Rothman L, Moses McKeag A, Howard A, Reid D, Letts M, Comeau J-L, Monk B and German A, Ejections from Child Restraint Systems in Rollovers: Observations from Real-World Collisions, Proc. CMRSC-XII; London, Ontario; June 10-13, 2001

Dr. Charles H. Miller Award 2001 Dr. Charles H. Miller Award Winner
Le gagnant du prix Dr Charles H. Miller 2001

German A, Comeau J-L, Monk B, McClafferty KJ, Tiessen P, Nowak ES, Chan J and Lo G; The Use of Event Data Recorders in the Analysis of Real-World Crashes; Proc. CMRSC-XII; London, Ontario; June 10-13, 2001

Dalmotas D, German A and Tylko S; The Crash And Field Performance Of Side-Mounted Airbag Systems; Paper No. 442; Proc. 17th ESV Conf.; Amsterdam, The Netherlands; June 4-7, 2001

Kontio K, Letts M and German A; Airbags and Children: A Mixed Blessing; Proc. 68th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons; San Francisco, California; February 28-March 4, 2001

German A; Event Data Recorders: A New Resource for Traffic Safety Research?; The Safety Network; pp. 1-4; November, 2000

German A, Gardner WT, Howard AW, Mackay M and Letts RM; Mechanisms of Lap Belt and Airbag Injuries in Children; Proc. AAAM/IRCOBI Child Occupant Protection Session; pp. 81-93; Barcelona, Spain; September 22, 1999

Dalmotas D, German A, Comeau J-L, Monk B and Hurley R; Correlation of Field Accident Data with Dummy Responses Measured in Side Impact Crash Tests; Proc. JSAE Spring Convention; Yokohama, Japan; May 19-21, 1999

Howard AW, Letts RM, Mackay M, German A, Gardner W and Ste Marie S; Children in Crashes: A Multi-Disciplinary Research Programme; Proc. CMRSC-XI; Halifax, Nova Scotia; May 9-12, 1999

McClafferty KJ, Shkrum MJ, German A, Tiessen PF and Nowak ES; Driver Fatalities in Frontal Impacts; Proc. CMRSC-XI; Halifax, Nova Scotia; May 9-12, 1999

Dalmotas DJ, German A and Hurley RM; Second Generation Air Bag Systems: A Preliminary Evaluation of Field Accident Experience; Proc. CMRSC-XI; Halifax, Nova Scotia; May 9-12, 1999

Comeau JL, German A and Monk B; Heavy Truck Wheel Separations: An In-Depth Study of Real-World Incidents; Proc. CMRSC-XI; Halifax, Nova Scotia; May 9-12, 1999

McCaffery M, German A, Lalonde F and Letts M; Air Bags and Children: A Potentially Lethal Combination; J. Pediatric Orthopaedics; 19:60-64; 1999

German A, Dalmotas D, and Hurley RM; Air Bag Collision Performance in a Restrained Occupant Population; Proc. 16th ESV Conf.; pp. 989-996; Windsor, Ontario; 1998

German A, Dalmotas D, Comeau JL, Monk B, Contant P, Gou M, Carignan S, Lussier LP, Newman J, and Withnall C; In-Depth Investigation and Reconstruction of an Air Bag Induced Child Fatality; Proc. 16th ESV Conf.; pp. 1126-1134; Windsor, Ontario; 1998

German A, Dalmotas DJ, Hurley RM, and Szentmiklosy AM; Field Accident Experience with Passenger Air Bags in Canada; Proc. CMRSC-X; Toronto, Ontario; June, 1997

McClafferty KJ, Chan J, Shkrum MJ, and German A; A Multi-Disciplinary Study of a Canadian Airbag Fatality; Proc. CMRSC-X; Toronto, Ontario; June, 1997

McClafferty KJ, Chan J, German A, and Nowak ES; The Fundamentals of Damage Analysis; Proc. CMRSC-X; Toronto, Ontario; June, 1997

German A; Canadian Data; Recovery; Vol. 7 No. 3; 1996

Dalmotas DJ, Hurley RM and German A; Supplemental Restraint Systems: Friend or Foe to Belted Occupants?; Proc. 40th. AAAM Conf.; pp. 63-75; Vancouver BC; 1996

Dalmotas DJ, German A, Hurley J and Digges K; Air Bag Deployment Crashes in Canada; Proc. 15th. ESV Conf.; pp. 155-168; Melbourne, Australia; 1996

German A, Dalmotas DJ, McClafferty KJ, and Nowak ES; Real-World Collision Experience for Airbag Technology; Advances in Transportation Systems, Proc. CSME Forum 1996; Hamilton ON; 1996

Comeau JL, Dalmotas DJ, German A, Trepanier D, and Monk B; Crush Measurements for Side Impacts Using a Total Station; SAE 960100; 1996

German A, Hendrick BE, Schmidt RK, and Wiwchar G; Conservation of Linear Momentum: Computer-Based Solutions; Proc. CMRSC-IX; Montreal; 1995

Dalmotas DJ, German A, and Welbourne ER; Directed Studies: A Focused Approach to Collision Investigation; Proc. CMRSC-IX; Montreal; 1995

Dalmotas DJ, German A, Hendrick BE, and Hurley RM; Air Bag Deployments: The Canadian Experience; J.Trauma; April, 1995

Dalmotas DJ, Hurley RM, and German A; Air Bag Deployments Involving Restrained Occupants; SAE 950868; 1995

Green RN, German A, Nowak ES, Dalmotas DJ and Stewart DE; Fatal Injuries to Restrained Passenger Car Occupants: Crash Modes and Kinematics of Injury;
     Proc. 35th. Conf. AAAM; Toronto, Ontario; pp. 103-117; October, 1991
     J. Acc. Anal. and Prev.; Vol. 26 No. 2; pp. 207-214; 1994

Green RN, McClafferty KJ, Nowak ES, Tiessen PFW, and German A; The Occurrence of Fatality to Restrained Occupants of Passenger Cars in Southwestern Ontario; Proc. CMRSC-VII; Vancouver, BC; pp. 102-115; 1991

Dance DM, German A, and Myers RV; Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standards - Collision Avoidance; Proc. CMRSC-VII; Vancouver, BC; pp. 22-34; 1991

Dance DM, German A, and Myers RV; Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standards - Crash Protection; Proc. CMRSC-VII; Vancouver, BC; pp. 85-100; 1991

Dalmotas DJ, German A, Gorski ZM, Green RN, and Nowak ES; Prospects for Improving Side Impact Protection Based on Canadian Field Accident Data and Crash Testing; SAE 910321; 1991

Gorski ZM, German, A., and Nowak, ES; Examination and Analysis of Seat Belt Loading Marks; J. Forensic Sciences, JFSCA, Vol. 35, No. 1; pp. 69-79; 1990

German A; PCS Data Analysis System User's Guide (Volumes I-III); Multi-Disciplinary Accident Research Team, The University of Western Ontario; August, 1989

Gorski ZM, German A, and Nowak ES; A Preliminary Examination of Factors Affecting the Location of Seat-Belt Loading Marks; Presented at the 15th. International Forum on Traffic Safety Records Systems; El Paso, Texas; July, 1989

German A, Gorski ZM, Green RN, and Nowak ES; Rollover Collisions: A Continuing Problem for Occupant Mortality; Presented at CMRSC-VI; Fredericton, New Brunswick; June, 1989

German A, Gorski ZM, Green RN, and Nowak ES; Side Impacts: Test Crashes and Real-World Collisions; Proc. 12th. ESV Conf.; Goteborg, Sweden; pp. 929-934; May, 1989

Nowak RS, Nowak ES, German A, and Gorski ZM; A Fundamental Momentum Energy Model for Central Automotive Collisions and an Analytical Investigation of Restitution; Proc. Ninth Symposium on Engineering Mechanics; London, Ontario; May, 1988

Green RN, German A, Gorski ZM, and Nowak ES; Case Studies of Severe Frontal Collisions Involving Fully-Restrained Occupants; Proc. 31st. AAAM Conf.; September, 1987

Green RN, German A, Gorski ZM, Nowak ES, and Dance DM; Misuse of Three-Point Occupant Restraints in Real-World Collisions; Proc. 1987 Int. IRCOBI Conf.; Birmingham, England; September, 1987

Green RN, German A, Gorski ZM, Nowak ES, and Dance DM; Abdominal Injuries Associated with the Use of Rear-Seat Lap Belts in Real-World Collisions; Proc. 1987 Int. IRCOBI Conf.; Birmingham, England; September, 1987

German A and Nowak ES; Motor Vehicle Safety Research in Canada; Presented at the 11th. Meeting of the Int. Assoc. of Forensic Sciences; Vancouver, BC; August, 1987

Nowak RS, Nowak ES, Tryphonopoulos JP, and German A; A Fundamental Momentum Energy Model for Central Motor Vehicle Collisions and a Critical Review of the Damage Algorithm for CRASH; Proc. CMRSC-V; Calgary, Alberta; pp. 221; June, 1987

German A, Gorski ZM, Green RN, and Nowak ES; PCS - The First Two Years of a Passenger Car Study in Southwestern Ontario; Proc. CMRSC-V; Calgary, Alberta; pp. 317; June, 1987

Green RN, German A, Gorski ZM, Nowak ES, Tryphonopoulos JP, and Mason DF; Unsatisfactory Roadside Barrier System Performance in Real-World Collisions: Lessons to be Learned; SAE 870077; 1987

Gorski ZM, German A, and Nowak ES; Video Collision Reconstruction Using Physical Evidence; Transportation Research Record 1111, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC; pp. 1; 1987

Green RN, German A, Gorski ZM, Nowak ES, and Tryphonopoulos JP; Improper Use of Occupant Restraints: Case Studies from Real-World Collisions; Proc. 30th. Conf. AAAM; pp. 423; October, 1986

Dalkie HS, German A, Panlilio VP, and Richards WE; PCS Coding Manual; Published by the Road Safety and Motor Vehicle Regulations Directorate, Transport Canada, 1986

German A; The Identification Officer and In-Depth Collision Analysis; Presented at the Michigan/Ontario Identification Conference; London, Ontario; October, 1985

Nelson WD, Kinney JR, and German A (Editor); Proceedings of the Accident Investigation Practices Subcommittee Workshop I; Published by Task Group 1, Accident Investigation Practices Subcommittee, Society of Automotive Engineers; September, 1985

German A, Duncanson ME, and Nowak ES; An Introduction to Injury Scaling and Injury Coding Schemes; Presented at the Annual Meeting of Canadian Multi-Disciplinary Accident Research Teams; Blainville, Quebec; May, 1985

German A, Gorski ZM, and Nowak ES; Collision Reconstruction Techniques: Collision Scene Analysis; Proc. CMRSC-IV; Montreal, Quebec; May, 1985

Gorski ZM, German A, and Nowak ES; Collision Reconstruction Techniques: Vehicle Damage Analysis; Proc. CMRSC-IV; Montreal, Quebec; May, 1985

German A; Multi-Disciplinary Accident Investigation Teams in Canada; The Safety Network; Vol. 1, No. 1; April, 1985

Duerden IJ, German A, and Nowak ES; Component Failure Recognition for Motor Vehicle Accident and Defect Investigators; Proc. CMRSC-II; Winnipeg, Manitoba; June, 1983

Dance DM, German A, and Nowak ES; Vehicle Crashworthiness and Occupant Protection; Proc. CMRSC-II; Winnipeg, Manitoba; June, 1983

Duerden IJ, German A, Lidzbarski ES, and Nowak, ES; Identification of Failure Modes in Occupant-Restraint Webbing; Final Report to the Director General, Road and Motor Vehicle Traffic Safety, Transport Canada under Contract Number DTS 340-502; January, 1983

German A; Vehicle Factors in Motor-Vehicle Collisions; Proceedings of the Seminar: Traffic Crash Analysis -The Forensic Aspect, Department of Continuing Education, The Law Society of Upper Canada; November, 1982

German A; Collision Kinematics and Human Tissue Injury; Proc. of the International Association of Coroners and Medical Examiners 1982 Seminar; pp. 159; June, 1982

German A, Nowak ES, and Green RN; Vehicle Dynamics: Free-Flight Trajectory Analysis; Proc. 25th Conf. AAAM; pp. 435; October, 1981

Dance DM, German A, Nowak ES, and Green RN; An In-Depth Analysis of a Multiple-Fatal, Head-On, Motor-Vehicle Collision; Proc. 25th. Conf. AAAM; pp. 69; October, 1981

 


 

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